[Free Kindle] ♿ Cradle of Gold ♃ Renegades-bempflingen.de

I must say at the outset that I wanted to be able to rate this book higher than I ultimately did I found the quality of the writing to be choppy, and it wasn t until the last third of the book that it was really able to hold my interest proof of this is that I finished and reviewed at least half a dozen other books in the same timeframe as I started this one including two that were significantly longer.It s really a pity, because Hiram Bingham s story should be presented in the interesting fashion that it deserves The so called scientific discoverer of Machu Picchu was an adventuring son of missionaries marrying into the Tiffany Co fortune afforded him the opportunity to travel all over the world as a gentleman explorer I am hesitant to refer to him as an archaeologist.Bingham s work depended on the exploitation of Peruvian labor allowable under law at the time , but even then there were laws against exporting artifacts from that country So, Bingham struck a deal in which the government in which any items he took out of the country were on loan and would be returned upon request That wasn t the end of the story, of course Items were poorly catalogued, if at all, and were shipped to Yale via means as varied as steamer trunks, crates and hand luggage This is to say nothing of private collections that were purchased and smuggled out of the country As we approach the centenary of Bingham s discovery of Machu Picchu, Peru has been requesting the return of the loaned artifacts for nearly 80 years to no avail There have been numerous articles in the newspaper of late about the matter, and I have no doubt that Heaney and his publishing company have carefully timed the release of this book to coincide with that historical finding Review based on uncorrected advance proof. This version of Hiram Bingham s life took me back to Machu Picchu and beyond It sure gave me a different perspective on archeology and the rights of the indigenous people Loved it Makes me want to travel even [Free Kindle] ♧ Cradle of Gold ♄ In , A Young Peruvian Boy Led An American Explorer And Yale Historian Named Hiram Bingham Into The Ancient Incan Citadel Of Machu Picchu Hidden Amidst The Breathtaking Heights Of The Andes, This Settlement Of Temples, Tombs And Palaces Was The Incas Greatest Achievement Tall, Handsome, And Sure Of His Destiny, Bingham Believed That Machu Picchu Was The Incas Final Refuge, Where They Fled The Spanish Conquistadors Bingham Made Machu Picchu Famous, And His Dispatches From The Jungle Cast Him As The Swashbuckling Hero Romanticized Today As A True Indiana Jones Like Character But His Excavation Of The Site Raised Old Specters Of Conquest And Plunder, And Met With An Indigenous Nationalism That Changed The Course Of Peruvian History Though Bingham Successfully Realized His Dream Of Bringing Machu Picchu S Treasure Of Skulls, Bones And Artifacts Back To The United States, Conflict Between Yale And Peru Persists Through The Present Day Over A Simple Question Who Owns Inca History In This Grand, Sweeping Narrative, Christopher Heaney Takes The Reader Into The Heart Of Peru S Past To Relive The Dramatic Story Of The Final Years Of The Incan Empire, The Exhilarating Recovery Of Their Final Cities And The Thought Provoking Fight Over Their Future Drawing On Original Research In Untapped Archives, Heaney Vividly Portrays Both A Stunning Landscape And The Complex History Of A Fascinating Region That Continues To Inspire Awe And Controversy Today From GoodreadsIn 1911, a young Peruvian boy led an American explorer and Yale historian named Hiram Bingham into the ancient Incan citadel of Machu Picchu Hidden amidst the breathtaking heights of the Andes, this settlement of temples, tombs and palaces was the Incas greatest achievement Although Machu Picchu had been visited by outsiders before, it was Hiram Bingham, sponsored by Yale University, that made it famous His discoveries, notes and excavated Inca relics were treasures to the scientific world The question that eventually became pre eminent was who owns these treasures For almost 100 years, Yale University claimed the rights to Peruvian national heritage Cradle of Gold was a terrific narrative of an exciting time in exploration and discovery, and also a interesting commentary on the purview of property rights. In his book, Heaney utilizes an easy, conversational style to tell an interesting and surprising tale of the life and adventures of Hiram Bingham The reader is treated to Indiana Jones like stories of the explorer s travels throughout Peru and of the wonderful discoveries he made Heaney s use of original sources is at times inspired and always appropriate The little tidbits about Bingham and his family are often poignant and truly create a feeling in the reader that one knows the man himself.At the same time, the reader is shown the sometimes shady underbelly of the profession of archaeology or perhaps just exploring and its connections to the mistreatment of indigenous people, the illicit artifact trade, and much Sadly, these practices date back hundreds or thousands of years, perhaps as far back as humanity has existed in a form resembling that of today.In many cases, Bingham represents a sort of renaissance man that belongs to a different era He lived a highly varied life, spending time on isolated islands at sea and in the jungle He met a great number of people from all walks of life and from all over the world However, as Heaney writes, Bingham was the hero of his own life.Bingham treated the world almost as his personal plaything he expected to get what he wanted and to make use of it as he saw fit He ostensibly followed the rules, but felt few qualms about bending them as it suited his needs When the rules became too strong to bend to his will, he simply changed games, moving into politics instead As a man of experience and pedigree, he found early success in this venture as well.It is this sense of easy success and entitlement that shines through the story most of all, not merely of Bingham personally, but also of the civilized world in general For much of human history including perhaps our own current time , humanity has divided itself into segments To the extent that they are aware of each other, each segment feels free to judge and place a value on the others.In Bingham s time, this was most definitely the case Theories such as Social Darwinism and Eugenics came and went, but always the civilized nations felt they were the best qualified to care for humanity s history In fact, they often felt that they needed to care for humanity s history This feeling extended even over artifacts and locations where the local countries were actively fighting for their right to control their own cultural discoveries Thus, the people with sufficient power and motivation felt they were the only ones who cared enough the only ones who could care enough to properly preserve historical items.Unfortunately, this attitude led to the widespread removal of artifacts from their homelands to be displayed or hidden in storage in far flung museums and galleries This practice became something of a competition amongst the wealthier nations of the world In one sense, the reader sides with the explorers and researchers as they are at least preferable to unsupervised and rampant looting simply for personal gain We want to see the museums of the world display artifacts and sites in such a way that the viewer can truly gain an understanding and appreciation for all that has come before.However, as Heaney points out, this viewing need not take place in Bingham s New Haven, CT In fact, many times, such a viewing might be effective if the items could be studied closer to home, providing the opportunity for the most interested parties to see and appreciate them Sometimes this might even include people who can trace their remote ancestry directly to those who hail from the era of a cultural site.In the end, the book represents a fascinating and at times gripping story of Bingham s life In terms of what this amazing man s experiences can teach us about the discovery and study of antiquities today, Heaney only touches briefly upon the topic, picking up the theme throughout the overarching narrative of Bingham s movie script of a life He helps the reader understand what it is about humanity that might make us seek to make discoveries, to possess ancient objects at whatever the cost Heaney does not, however, go far enough in elucidating ways to reign in these exuberances In fairness, this was not the focus of the book, but Bingham provides such fertile soil, that the reader justifiably might expect. After visiting Machu Picchu in September, I wanted to know about it s discovery This book gave me all the details Very interesting One of my dreams is to go to Peru It is a land of beauty, enriched with culture and a history that both fascinates and haunts me Most travellers lucky enough to venture to Peru endeavour to visit Machu Picchu and walk the Inca Trail The magnetism to this spot could be neatly described as a historical cosmos in miniature Machu Picchu, or Old Peak , is a symbolic reminder of the great Inca Empire that stretched the breadth of the west coast of South America, climbing to the highest mountains and touching the clouds, bringing them closer to the sun and stars, their iconic vision of light and truth Along the Trail is Warmiwa usqa or Dead Woman s Pass which is said to offer spectacular views between the mountains From here are stone baths where the Incas used to wash their gold The Spanish invasion of the 1500s changed the Inca history forever The conquistadors brought fear, death, disease, Catholicism and a bloody greed for gold One could argue that the Incas were civilised and the Spanish like savages.Christopher Heaney s Cradle of Gold details the Indiana Jones esque background of Hiram Bingham and his prosperous marriage to a Miss Tiffany, a diamond fortune in tow, and the speculations of Machu Picchu itself, as well as the political battles for ownership of its remains Since the explorations lead by Hiram Bingham that stumbled across Machu Picchu on July 24th 1911, the mysteries that shroud Machu Picchu have been brought to the fore by the National Geographic Society, Yale University and the global media Archaeological finds mostly skeletons and pottery were smuggled to Yale and some were almost lost to the sea forever when the Turrialba ran aground soon after the Titanic sunk on May 31st 1991 There is an Inca Museum in Cusco that I would be very interested in visiting as well as a train named after the explorer himself that takes you from Machu Picchu to the town below I wonder what the situation is now with regards to these historical artefacts It is ironic that the Incas have their Empire shattered and the modern Peruvians have what remnants were left taken from them, by white men whose names will be accentuated as the discoverers and safe keepers of South American history and academia Exactness is impossible with regards to why Machu Picchu was built in the first place but speculations offer an interesting blend of notions Some thought it might be Vilcabamba, the last City of the Incas or the last resting place of the Virgins of the Suns, but its routes run deeper than this and the skeletons found indicate a mix of men and women whose joints were worn and backs were bent from physical toil One historian believes it is now in 2011 understood that it is a site of regional, spiritual authority as well as a royal estate whose upkeep was paid for by the familial cult that surrounded Emperor Pachacuti s mummy I like the idea that Machu Picchu was a concevidayoc , translating as a spot where one may be preserved from harm and a casa alegre or happy home In the present day, tourists and historians alike can enjoy the climb up, hopefully not with too much soroche , altitude sickness, and marvel at the ruins of Incan masonic grandeur and the views over the Andes Heaney describes the architecture that was built without a trace of cement as perfectly fitted together as a glass stopper is fitted to a bottle Here you can also find an Intihuatana, a sun post like a sundial the Incas used as a clock and calendar, probably used to dictate crop cycles and sun worship My imagination gives Machu Picchu a vivid impression of a pure city, glowing with white and gold, surrounded by the lush green of sun kissed foliage, at one with nature with mantels of crops encompassing the mountainside Its people would have prospered with an expert knowledge of agriculture and a spiritual completeness and sense of peace, safe in the mountains. For starters, I feel I must admit that my interest in archaeology, exploration and ancient civilisations was the result of playing the original Tomb Raider on the Playstation back in 1996 It made me think about how people in the past lived, the secrets and artefacts left behind and what we could find out from these I guess I loved the mystery of it all and the sense of adventure in rediscovering something that had been lost for such a long time.It also inspired my life long desire to visit Peru When I spotted this book in a charity book shop, I picked it up straight away, wanting to find out even about the history of a place I ve wanted to visit for such a long time I was so excited to read the book that at first I was quite surprised at how small the text was It wasn t a major issue but it felt a little bit like a struggle knowing the text was so small and the chapters were so long as well I like to read complete chapters before stopping I also found it to be quite heavy , in the sense that it was full of lots of names, dates and other information that took quite a while to digest and sort out in my head, and I found myself constantly saying how it felt like I was reading a scientific paper or journal It took me a long time to get through Having said this, by no means does this mean that I didn t enjoy it I loved finding out about the history and life of the man, Hiram Bingham, who rediscovered Machu Picchu and other Inca sites even if I did find myself regarding him with a mixture of respect, admiration and also disbelief at some questionable moral decisions.Most of all, I loved reading about the journey to the discovery and the descriptions of the sites and artefacts found Wishing I had somehow made the discovery myself and imagining what it must have felt like.One day I will go to Peru and I will visit Machu Picchu and Vilcabamba and other such sites mentioned in this book And I feel like I will appreciate it all the for having read this book and learning even about the history and lives of the Inca civilisation. The discovery of Machu Picchu by Hiram BinghamThis book narrates the adventure and misadventures of Yale University professor Hiram Bingham in the 1911 discovery of Machu Picchu, currently one of the most popular tourist spots in the Americas With the help of Peruvian scholars like Carlos Romero and local informants like Juan Quispicusi, Bigham found Vitcos and Espiritu Pampa, scenes of the final moments of Manco Inca, Titu Cusi, and Tupac Arnaru, three of the important and tragic figures in Peruvian history Machu Picchu represents the Inca Empire at its height, and Vitcos and Espiritu Pampa embody Inca resistance to Spanish impe rialism Bingham did not understand all that he saw, and there were many Peru vians who had seen these ruins before him, but his desire to understand them within the story of Spanish and Inca struggle is one of the compelling acts in the history of exploration His expedition paid attention to the lives of the humbler members of Inca society the poor, and the transplanted He was a man of his time, thoroughly bound by American piety, wealth, and colonialist attitudes towards the native peoples of Latin America To ex plore and excavate, he took advantage of forced Indian labor He was raised to believe that he is the hero of his life, and obscured the help he received from the many Peruvians who preceded him in the archives and mountains He loved his discoveries so much that he had to possess their artifacts, losing himself in the moral jungle of that decision Bingham sought exceptions as a white American and representative of Yale, then bent and broke Peruvian law when he didn t get special treatment When confronted by his Peruvian collaborators, he quit academics, left Machu Picchu s artifacts at Yale, and went into politics, where he tripped once again His high profile expeditions raised Peruvian consciousness and criticisms of foreign ex ploitation of its history, unauthorized excavation and the smuggling of artifacts In one expedition Bingham and his companion named Coot had dodged the famed stick up artists Butch Cassidy and the Sun dance Kid near Bolivia The two outlaws had robbed a cart carrying one silver mine s payroll the week before and Bolivian soldiers had cornered and shot both the bandits When this happened, Bingham wrote the story down, not realizing its significance Historians Anne Meadows and Daniel Buck, however, concluded that the two men were in fact Butch Cassidy and the Sun dance Kid In a strange turn of events Bing ham bought one of their mules not realizing his brush with another pair of American legends While Bingham gets the credit for the discovery of the lost city of Incas, but he is also accused of removing the archeological treasures of Peru in a clandestine fashion and many of them smuggled illegally into this country The court battle between Yale and Peru is uncalled for the treasures rightfully belong to Peru and Yale must return the archeological materials. The discovery of Incan ruins in Peru with Machu Picchu becoming the most famous by Hiram Bingham III is the subject of Heaney s book It was 1911 Bingham was not an explorer nor anthropologist nor scientists But he managed to arrange several expeditions to Peru to uncover the lost cities of the Inca on behalf of Yale University His plan was to use the stories of the Peruvian indigents to uncover trails, communities and the cultural life of the ancients And, to assist in his expeditions he used the local indigents to show him the ruins.As Bingham uncovered and , he became the so called scientific discoverer of Machu Picchu Most of his finds were skulls, shards of pottery, small tools, pieces of silver, etc and were to be taken back to Yale in the US to create a museum of South American antiquities However, the Peruvian government began to resent the movement of their country s antiquities being removed from Peru Binghan did manage to ship much of his findings to Yale however, the final shipment out of Peru was accompanied with a document that allowed Peru at any future date to take back any and all of their own Inca antiquities.A good book to read with Cradle of Gold is Craig Child s Finders Keepers Child addresses the moral and legal removal of antiquities from a country to be moved elsewhere Who owns the history Since the times of Bingham s expeditions and later battles with Peru, and excavations are being found Poorer countries cannot afford to retrieve their own antiquities , study them or store display them Museums are already storing way exhibits than they can display How far back in time should remnants of our ancients be retained